Fun With Vacuum Tubes. Making Records Sound Even Better

One of the perks of listening to vinyl records is analog audio equipment. Unlike digital sources and integrated circuit amplifiers, analog gear allows a certain degree of tinkering and easy improvements for anyone adept with a soldering iron or the ability to replace op-amps or tubes in their sockets.

The Search for a Vacuum Tube Phono Preamp

Recently I decided to retire my 19 year old Rotel RQ-970BX phono preamp and treat myself to something better.  I wanted to try out a modern phono stage based on vacuum tubes (valves).  It’s not secret that well-engineered tube equipment can sound fantastic with a huge sound stage and a warm, non-fatiguing tone. Unlike many vintage designs, modern tube equipment does not suffer from excessive noise, hum or distortion. On paper, they feature very low distortion, low noise and a wide frequency response.  What is hard to capture through measured specifications is how they sound, that’s the subjective part.  However, it’s the overall subjective sound quality that can make or break good analog gear.  One of the advantages of tube based designs is that one can try out different tubes which will improve and tailor the sound to one’s preference.  The challenge was to get something significantly better than the Rotel, but under $500.  A tall order since many top “audiophile recommended” phono stages cost over $1000.

I was going to try my hand at building a high quality valve based phono preamp and looked at a number of kits on from various online vendors including Ebay. There are some excellent tube based kits for DIY hobbyists, however, they do not come cheap (over $500). Moreover, with the anemic Canadian dollar, purchasing such a kit from the USA adds about 35% to the cost, not to mention shipping fees.

On the other hand, one can find budget tube kits on Ebay. There’s a rub, though, most of them are Chinese products of dubious quality. They often use garden variety Chinese valves that are as common as muck and quality control is not consistent.  Many of these kits are based on old 1960’s and ’70s designs which were copied from vintage equipment and that means noise is an issue.  The Chinese Ebay kits cost between $100 and $300 shipped, not to mention a significant amount of time to build one.  After reading a number of less than stellar reviews on hi-fi sites, I decided against it.

After a fair bit of research and reading several online reviews, I finally decided on the German designed Pro-Ject Tube Box S.  Luckily, I found one for sale at Whitby Audio. I was also fortunate enough to purchase it at the same price before the Canadian dollar took a nose dive and that saved me $200. I expect it was older stock that was sourced when the Canadian dollar was still strong.

As soon as I was home, I connected my turntable, let the tubes warm up for an hour and spun a record.  It sounded fantastic, compared the solid state Rotel RQ-970BX. The Tube Box S has a wider soundstage, greater dynamics, better bass and an overall fullness that really surpasses Rotel.  Moreover, there are dip switch adjustments to meet the exact electrical requirements of just about any moving magnet or moving coil phono cartridge.  Money well spent and it was within my $500 budget.

Pro-Ject Tube Box S
Pro-Ject Tube Box S

Tube Rolling on the Pro-Ject Tube Box S

The factory installed tubes on the Pro-Ject Tube Box S are generic ECC88’s made in Czechoslovakia. They are decent enough, better than many cheap Chinese tubes, but there is room for improvement.   I noticed they tended to be a bit noisy, when the amp is running at high volumes – the tubes were prone to picking up a small amount of hum and hiss. I was able to minimize this by plugging the power supply into another outlet and installing a ferrite coil on the power supply wire.  As good as this unit is, I want silent valves and better sound.

Stock Tubes from Pro-Ject Tube Box S
Stock ECC88 Tubes from Pro-Ject Tube Box S – Inexpensive, Common and Good Enough

Knowing full well the sound of the Tube Box S could be improved with better valves, I visited a number of audio enthusiast web sites and made a list of potential replacements. Many of the best valves cost as much, if not more, than the purchase price of the Tube Box S. A single vintage audiophile class tube could cost anywhere between $150 and $300. The reason is that these tubes were made by now defunct valve manufacturers such as G.E., Telefunken, Mullard, Philips, etc. They are referred to as New Old Stock (NOS), meaning they are unused, still in original boxes and culled from old unsold stock. These historic valves are bought and sold like rare vintage wines. On the other hand, one can purchase brand new valves made in Russia, China or Czechoslovakia. Generally, Russian tubes are favoured and the prices are quite reasonable.  A good Russian preamp tube costs about $12 and better ones start at $25.

Mullard 12AX7 – Russian Recreation of a British Classic

My criteria was to find a valve known for very low noise, excellent hi-fi performance, musical warmth, energetic bass response and a long life. Each valve had to be under $30, so based on my research, I bought a pair of Mullard 12AX7s.   These are Russian copies of famous Mullard tubes made by the legendary and now defunct British manufacturer bearing the same name.

Mullard 12AX7 Vacuum Tube
Mullard 12AX7 Vacuum Tube – A great Hi-Fi Valve

Among audiophiles, original Mullard tubes have a cult status and now command a wallet draining price. The Russian copies get you about 90% of the performance, but at 1/9 to 1/10 the cost. Back in the day, Mullard manufacturing maintained strict quality control and engineering excellence. There is a historic video on youtube that shows how their valves were made with the greatest care and meticulous craftsmanship. The original version of the Mullard 12AX7’s were known for very low noise and excellent audio performance.  Since the Russian copies are based on the same design, I expected a similar result.

Replacing the original tubes in my Pro-Ject Tube Box S took about 30 minutes. I had to remove the fiddly cages around the stock tubes and then carefully pull out the ECC88’s, replace them with the Mullards and reassemble the cages.  I was anxious to try them out, however, brand new tubes can sound harsh until they have warmed up for a few hours.

Getting Ready to Replace the Stock Tubes
Getting Ready to Replace the Stock Tubes

I tested the Tube Box S to make sure the new valves worked and played a record. Naturally it sounded a bit harsh, but after the tubes warmed up for a two hours, they sounded great. Much better than the stock tubes and the valve noise is gone. There is virtually no hum or hiss, even at the highest listening volumes.

Bass is better, with more punch and better decay on the notes. The sound stage is outstanding, you can close your eyes and easily visualize the position of each instrument as if they were right in front of you.  The sound stage takes on a whole new dimension and invites deep listening.  Vocals sound more natural, sibilants have improved and there is more detail on the higher frequencies without any audible harshness or distortion. In other words, it sounds more musical.

New Mullard Tubes Ready to Go
New Mullard 12AX7 Tubes Ready to Go

The Russian Mullards have had several hours play to break in and sound even better.  I expect they will continue to improve slightly after a few more weeks use. It was a worthwhile and modest investment to improve an already excellent phono pre-amp. Tubes rule and records have never sounded better on my system.

18 thoughts on “Fun With Vacuum Tubes. Making Records Sound Even Better”

  1. This is funny. Yesterday I did exactly the same. Same preamp, same Mullards as replacement. Only I just now found your article thanks to my best friend Google. I bought 4 matched tubes so I would have a replacement in case of any defects. After a few hours of warming up I already noticed the difference. Hard to describe. More fluent, brighter, punchier. As if everyting is covered in a warm blanket. A bit like FM radio broadcast sound but still having detail in the sound. I love it. For now I will keep this as my method of listening to vinyl but tuberolling looks fun. I am wondering what effect a pair of NOS vintage 60s tubes would have. I will keep looking on ebay for an affordable opportunity.

    1. Hi Dennis,

      Thanks for the comments. I have burned in those Mullards now after a few dozen hours of listening and they continue to improve in richness and harmonics. When I first replaced the stock tubes in the Pro-Ject, I was using an Ortofon 2M Blue cartridge with the preamp gain set to 40db. There was virtually no background noise or any hum, even when the amp was cranked. Last week, I replaced the Ortofon with a Grado Statement Sonata with a low output of only 0.5mv. As such, the phono preamp needs 61 db gain now and there is some hiss from the tubes at higher volumes, but barely noticeable when records are played. I may be on the search for some other tubes which are quieter, but I am afraid it might sacrifice some dynamics that the Mullards do well.

      If you come across any tubes that have the full sound and soundstage of the Mullards, but are quieter, please let me know.


      1. I am now trying to reinstall cartride that came with my Technics SL1710MKII. An Audio Technica 3100XE with replaceable tip. Its also low output, 0.4 mV so I thougt to make use of a step up transformer. I scored a Sony HA T10 from Ebay… I am now wondering what settings for the Tube preamp should be used…

        1. Hi Dennis, you may able to use the Pro-Ject without a step up transformer, provided you set the gain to 61db. I will assume your cartridge is MC, so I would go with the standard settings for a low output MC cartridge. It’s on page 3 of your manual.

          I am currently using a low output Grado Statement Sonata moving iron cartridge, which outputs 0.5 mV. I had to set the gain to 61db and there is some hiss when the amp’s volume knob is cranked high. This is to be expected with tubes. That said, the hiss becomes a non-issue once I play a record as the signal ratio of the music overwhelms the phono preamp noise.

          I have been doing some research and there are quieter tubes than the re-issued Mullards, but that can also mean a compromise in dynamics and gain. If your cartridge is shielded, I expect it will be more immune to noise than the unshielded Grado.

          Let me know how it goes.

  2. hi
    just tried your recommendations and followed the steps ! found a paired of mullard reissues russian made ! great improvement in all areas of sound ! great full rich and very precise sound, especially in jazz originals from the 50’s and 60’s ! impulse, blue note records sound fabulous ! i have a sansui vintage amp with project turntable and wow !!!
    thx again

  3. greetings. thank you for taking the time to write up your observations and fill us in on the results of your tinkering. as you wrote this post almost two years ago, i’m wondering if you still feel the same. i am in the market for a tube phono stage, and would appreciate any further thoughts you might have about your experience with the pro-ject tube box. thank you in advance!

    1. Hello, thank you for the comments. Although I have since moved on from the Pro-ject Tube Box S, I still recommend it. As a matter of fact it occupies a place in my second stereo system. For the money it’s a really nice unit and versatile enough to accommodate any virtually any phono cartridge, whether MC or MM. I tried tube rolling and with Sovteks and Mullard reissues. The Sovteks work better with low output MC cartridges as they have a bit more gain and a lower noise floor, however, they tend towards a bit brighter sound. The Mullards work well for MM cartridges, the sound is a bit warmer and fuller compared to the Sovteks. I prefer the Mullards’ house sound.

      These days I am using the phono stage on a new McIntosh C47 pre-amp. It outclasses the Pro-Ject tube box when it comes to amplifying a low output MC cartridge. There is no audible noise and the pacing is a bit better. Then again, it represents a much higher investment than the Tube Box S.

      Currently, I have the Tube Box S hooked up to a vintage Marantz receiver and Dual turntable with a Ortofon Blue cartridge. The Tube Box S blows away the phono stage in the Marantz. Very happy with it on that system.

  4. Hi Rob,

    Thank you for your very insightful article on this. It’s to this day the best reference i could find on tubes on the Tube Box S.

    Recently I got my hands on a pair of Telefunken E188CC. Happy to try them out… they quickly became very very hot. Could still touch the tip but not the lower part. It’s extremely hot.

    And then the whole unit started smelling like heat up plastic – so had to turn them off.

    The tube socket seems plastic.

    How hot can these get? Have I chosen the wrong tubes?

    Should I worry or just let them on ignoring the smell? 🙂

    I would like to not damage either unit… but due to my limited experience with tubes – no idea what’s normal or not.

    Very thankful for any insight on this…

    Thank you!

    1. Hello Andrei,

      Thank you for the positive response on my post. As for those hot tubes, it’s possible NOS telefunkens run hotter than the stock tubes. When I was using higher gain Sovtek tubes on the unit, they ran hot then stock tubes, but not so hot I could detect a smell. Did you try swapping back in the original tubes to see the difference?

      What I can tell you is that on my MacIntosh tube power amplifier, the KT88 power tubes and ECC81 pre-amp tubes run really hot, so much so I dare not touch them. When the amp was new, there was a slight smell after the tubes were on for 30 mins or more. After a few weeks, the smell abated, but the tubes still run very hot, as they should.

      1. Hi Rob,

        Thank you for your reply. Yes, i’ve tried putting back the stock tubes, and back to business as usual: no smell, no extra heat. I’ve read online that the smell is “normal” for tubes as the paint on them melts… or something 🙂 no idea if this makes sense.

        In any case, i’m not going back to the stock tubes, i really like the sound i’m getting with these, even though I use a low gain mc hana cart and this preamp does have quite some noise even with the new tubes. Hope the smell will go away after a while.

        To help with heat i fixed a huge heatsink to the casing of the tube box, and gotten the heat to acceptable levels. It’s still very very hot, but not as much as i feel it will destroy the unit.

        Also, i’ve seen many tubes online with heatsinks wrapped around them so I also tries fixing some heatsinks to the sides of the tubes to help with heat dissipation. Some people seem to use a fan – but that seems counterintuitive as they do need the heat, right?

        Compared to the phono card in my Accuphase amp – it’s not as well performing, but I do like the sound of the tube preamp more and always use this one. 🙂

        Thanks for the inspiration!

  5. I am hesitate to replace the stock tubes and I wonder if people just can’t stop themselves from messing with things (myself included). I read the soundstage and instrument separation comments and I currently already have this with the stock tubes. I am skeptical that the improvement is as big as people say with replacement tubes and they are just hearing the pre-amp doing it’s job. Surely it must be minimal and more worthy upgrades or changes to sound are with carts. My stock set is now worn in with a good number of hours clocked.

    1. Mileage may vary with different tubes. For example, I had both Mullard reissues and Sovteks in the unit. The Mullards worked well for moving magnet cartridges and they tend to have somewhat warmer and fuller sound. Then when I got a low output moving coil, the Mullards lacked sufficient gain and there was noticeable background hiss as I had to really crank my pre-amp. The Sovteks offered higher gain and reduced the background hiss, probably since I used less gain on my pre-amp. The Sovteks did not sound quite as warm as the Mullards, the sound was brighter. Are the differences night and day? Not really, but they are audible. Think of it as adjusting seasoning when you are cooking. Tweak according to taste. Fortunately, tube rolling on the Tube Box-S is not expensive.

  6. Dear Rob,

    I have a Pro ject tube box S with a Benz Micro MC Gold with the Mullard tube.
    Could you please give more info regarding settings for my stylus?

    Project tube box s:
    Input impedance 10/100/1k/2k ohms (MC)/ 47k ohms (MM)
    Input capacitance 50/150/270/370 pF
    Gain switch 41/51/61 dB
    Signal-to-noise ratio MM (41 dB): 84 dB (94 dB – IEC -A) MC (51/61 dB): 67 dB (75 dB – IEC -A)

    Benz Micro MC Gold:

    Output Voltage

    0.4mV (1kHz and 3.54cm/sec.)

    Internal Impedance


    Frequency Response

    20 – 25,000Hz

    Output Channel Balance

    Better than1.2dB (1kHz)

    Channel Separation

    30dB (1kHz)

    Thank you

    Best regards,

    1. I would set the gain to 61DB. Then set input impedance 10ohms, Input capacitance is irrelevant for low-output MC cartridges
      8-ON rest- OFF

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